If you’re confused about the terminology you’re not alone: I was at first! Here are some definitions and guidlines
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An instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. It is a debt security, under which the issuer owes the holders a debt and, depending on the terms of the bond, is obliged to pay them interest (the coupon) and/or to repay the principal at a later date, termed the maturity date. Interest is usually payable at fixed intervals (semiannual, annual, and sometimes monthly!). Very often the bond is negotiable, i.e. the ownership of the instrument can be transferred in the secondary market. This means that once the transfer agents at the bank medallion stamp the bond on the second market it becomes highly liquid.
Thus it’s a form of loan or IOU: the holder is the lender (creditor), the issuer is the borrower (debtor), and the coupon is the interest. They provide the borrower with external funds to finance long-term investments, or, in the case of government bonds, to finance current expenditure. Certificates of deposit (CDs) or short term commercial paper are considered to be money market instruments and not bonds: the main difference is in the length of the term of the instrument.
Bonds and stocks are both securities, but the major difference between the two is that (capital) stockholders have an equity stake in the company (i.e. they are investors), whereas bondholders have a creditor stake in the company (i.e. they are lenders). Being a creditor, bondholders have absolute priority and will be repaid before stockholders (who are owners) in the event of bankruptcy. Another difference is that bonds usually have a defined term, or maturity, after which the bond is redeemed, whereas stocks are typically outstanding indefinitely. An exception is an irredeemable bond, such as CONSOL’s, which is a perpetuity, i.e. bonds with no maturity.
What to know about bonds:
- Type- Bonds may be issued as either secured or unsecured. Secured bonds are backed by physical assets which revert to the bondholder if the company cannot honor its obligations. Unsecured are called debentures and are backed only by the faith and credit of the issuer; obviously more risky than secured bonds. If a company does claim bankruptcy, bondholders are given priority over stockholders to any recovered funds.
- Maturity date- which is the day on which the issuer pays back your loan in full. This date can range typically between 3 and 10 years. In exchange for lending the company funds, the bond pays out interest (the coupon rate). These interest payments are generally made on a semi-annual basis, annual, quarterly, or even monthly.
- Prices– Bond prices move inversely with prevailing interest rates.
- When interest rates go up, bonds with lower interest rates will trade at a discount because investors can now buy them at higher rates.
- When interest rates go down, bonds with higher interests will command a premium because they pay a better rate.
- Ff interest rates rise when you already own a bond, you may miss out on the opportunity to buy the same bond for a higher rate of return. Also, the price of the bond will fall. This shouldn’t affect you If you’re intending to hold the bond until maturity. The only drawback is you will be earning less interest until it matures.
- Risks– If a bond goes into default, investors may lose some or all of their principal. Although rare with investment-grade bonds, but it’s always a possibility.
- The Yield is the rate of return received from investing in the bond. It usually refers either to
- Current yield, or running yield, which is simply the annual interest payment divided by the current market price of the bond (often the clean price), or to
- Yield to maturity or redemption yield, which is a more useful measure of the return of the bond, taking into account the current market price, and the amount and timing of all remaining coupon payments and of the repayment due on maturity. It is equivalent to the internal rate of return of a bond.
Note- The stock market and bond market are inversely correlated; as one rises, the other falls.
Click Here to understand why choosing bonds is safe for any portfolio
Capital gain is a profit that results from investing in a capital asset, such as stock, bond, or real estate. When you sell an asset for less than its purchase price, on the other hand, you incur a capital loss. Several factors determine the nature of your capital gain (or loss), including the type of asset and the duration of ownership.
The term capital gain is used to describe the profit earned from buying an investment or other asset at one price and selling it at a different, higher price. For instance, if you bought a real estate for $350,000 and sold it for $500,000, you would need to report total capital gains of $150,000 ($500,000 selling price – $350,000 cost basis = $300,000 capital gains profit).
Capital gain can be earned on stocks, bonds, mutual funds, works of art, real estate, or virtually anything else that can be considered an investment.
The Taxes on capital gain varies depending on:
1) type of investment,
2) length of time you held the investment, and
3) whether you plan to offset those gains by other capital losses.
Everyone has financial dreams, but not everyone set goals to achieve them. This raises an important question: what is keeping you from acting on this? Simple answer: absolutely nothing. Don’t just hope someday you will have enough money for retirement- that’s not going to happen. This passive approach will be your financial nightmare; better get proactive and start setting some goals. Consider the following needs:
- Steady source of income. This comes from your job, your business if you’re self-employed, or investments. Future income is the bedrock on which financial security is built.
- Financial reserves. Unexpected things happen all the time – fridge stops working, water heater starts leaking, car breaks down. Just the other day, my washer stopped working all together. Not to mention if you have kids to support and send to college. And someday the hope to retire. These are expenses you have to provide for with savings and investments.
- Life Insurance. Protect your family, your income, your health, and your possessions.
Even modest inflation will grind away at your financial reserves. To stay ahead of the cost of living, you have to be alert for opportunities to make your money grow. These things don’t come to you by accident. You have to go after them, and that means setting some goals.
The most important step toward financial security is to translate it into your own terms. What, exactly, are your personal financial goals? If you have trouble sorting them out, try classifying them as either wants or needs. Go a step further and add long-term or short-term to the description.
Financial compounding is the ability of an asset to generate earnings, which are then reinvested in order to generate their own earnings. In other words, compounding refers to generating earnings from previous earnings.
Here’s an example:
Joe invests $5,000 in Apple. After first year, the share price rises 20%; his investment is now worth: $6,000 ($5000 x 0.2 = $1,000). Let’s say he holds that stock for another year. In year 2, shares appreciate again another 20%. Now Joe’s investment of $6,000 grew to $7,200 ($6000 x 0.2 = $1,200). Because the 20% appreciation was calculated against $6,000 in the second year. That’s an additional $200 compounded after 2 years.
Fact, $5,000 invested at 20% annually for 25 years would grow to $476,981.
Read full article here: 14 IRS Audit Red Flags-Kiplinger.
Definition: In simple terms- asset allocation is about choosing how much to invest in each asset class.
Asset class: Well, there are three major asset classes: stocks, bonds and cash. Moving beyond these common asset types, however, and you could invest in real estate, private equity, natural resources, foreign currencies, and more.
It doesn’t matter if your investment account is an IRA, 401(k) or 403(b), or a regular brokerage account, asset allocation works for any portfolio. You can select from among different stocks, bonds, mutual funds, exchange traded funds, Treasuries, and money market accounts. Your portfolio mixture is determined by your investment goals.
In investing, you never want to be overly invested in one asset class and avoid investing in assets of poor quality. The proper asset allocation is to provide the ideal mix of investments that gets you the greatest long term gains for a minimal amount of risk.
Determining your asset allocation: Consider the following factors: your age, years to retirement, goals, and risk tolerance of course. Rule of thumb- maximum stock market exposure tends to be riskier. Always have a balanced portfolio tailored to your goals, and needs. Younger investors can be aggressive and invest more into stocks (75% and up); since they have time to make back their losses if market tanks (like it did back in 2008/09). While older investors will primarily focus on capital preservation, then tend to invest less in stocks and more in bonds or cash, since they rely on their nest egg for annual income and can’t afford losses.
The objective of asset allocation is broad diversification and minimizing risks as much as possible. Diversification gives you the opportunity to make money with one asset class even while another declines.
If you have any questions on this matter, don’t hesitate to contact me.
If you are fairly new to investing, you might be asking yourself: where do I invest my money??!
First, you’ll need to choose where to invest your hard earned money. There are many financial institutions, online brokers that will be happy to have you as a new investor. Here are few well known platforms where you can place your money (to name a few):
- Online brokerages such as Charles Schwab, TDAmeritrade, Vanguard or Fidelity (I currently use Fidelity, Schwab, Vanguard, and Schwab)
- Full-service brokers or financial advisors
- Specialty brokerages like Betterment
- Direct mutual fund accounts
- Dividend reinvestment programs (DRIPs)
Until you become a comfortable investor, I strongly recommend buying mutual funds and/or ETFs through an online broker or direct mutual fund account. Get the feel for it, then expand on that. Make sure you do plenty of research before jumping in.